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Reagents for environmental monitoring, bioassay, geochemistry, radiopharmacy and decommissioning

New publications

Please find here under a short list with recently published papers on the use of extraction chromatography that we'll update frequently. We hope that this will be of help for your work! You'll also find regular updates on our twitter account.

 

 

ZhongtangWang, ZhaoyaHuang, YunXie, ZhaoyiTan: "Method for determination of Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after simple chemical separation using TK200 resin"

Analytica Chimica Acta, Available online 29 August 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2019.08.063

 

Highlights

  • For the first time, TK200 resin is applied in the determination of Pu isotopes in environmental sample.
  • The developed chromatographic separation procedure using TK200 resin only takes 1.5 h.
  • The obtained decontamination factor of U (>7.5 ×107) of this method is the highest reported value.
  • The chemical recovery of Pu of this method is stably high (81-91%).

 

 

Abstract

 

Plutonium has been extensively studied in the environment, for the purpose of radiological assessment, environmental behavior study and nuclear emergency response. To determine Pu isotopes in environmental soil and sediment, a novel analytical method was established in this study using a new type of extraction resin, TK200 resin. Firstly an investigation was performed to study the extraction behaviors of Pu, U, Th, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi and Hf on TK200 resin. On the basis of the results, a new chromatographic procedure was then proposed to separate Pu from the elements that interfere the accurate determination of Pu isotopes by mass spectrometry. Owing to the excellent separation efficiency between Pu and interfering elements (IEs) of the developed procedure, high decontamination factors (DFs) were obtained for IEs, e.g. the DF(U) (>7.5×107) was the highest reported value. The separation procedure was finally combined with HNO3 leaching, CaF2/LaF3 coprecipitation and sector field-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) measurement to establish a complete method. The established method was evaluated by analyzing four standard reference materials (soil, sediment), and the results showed that both 239+240Pu activity and 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio were accurately determined, with stable and high Pu chemical recoveries (81-91%). The whole analytical method only took about 15 h, and the limits of detection were calculated to be 0.13 - 0.24 fg g-1 for Pu isotopes (for 2 g soil or sediment), guaranteeing the rapid determination of ultra-trace level Pu in soil and sediment samples.

 

TK200

 

 

 

Esparza, D. et al.: "Fast-response flow-based method for evaluating 131I from biological and hospital waste samples exploiting liquid scintillation detection"

Talanta, 206, 2020, 120224, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120224

 

Abstract

 

Highlights

  • I-131 is fastly determined in biological and hospital waste samples.
  • A flow system allows the automatic and safe analysis of radioactive samples.
  • Sample clean-up is achieved exploiting a really green-chemistry and fast-response method.

 

Abstract
This paper presents a fast and automatic flow-based method to extract 131I from biological samples and hospital waste, previous to liquid scintillation detection. 131I is a radionuclide extensively used in Nuclear Medicine due to their beta and gamma disintegrations, whereby hospitals have to manage the associated waste generation. The automatic developed system is based on Lab-On-Valve (LOV) flow-technique exploiting Cl-resin (135 mg per extraction). This methodology allows performing sample extractions and measurements on the same day, since the extraction frequency takes 1.4–4 h−1, depending on the analysed sample volume, plus up to 2 h of measurement for each vial. 131I is retained as iodine ion and eluted with sodium sulphide 0.2 mol L−1. The maximum sample volume that can be preconcentrated is 20 mL, reaching an extraction efficiency of 85 ± 5%. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 0.05 Bq, showing a precision of 7% RSD (n = 5). Both, biological samples (urine and saliva) and hospital waste samples can be satisfactorily analysed by the proposed system, obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110%. The developed method is then suitable to implement in hospitals, improving the surveillance of the 131I environmental release.

 

Keywords
131I, Flow analysis, Biological sample, Hospital waste, Cl-resin, Liquid scintillation counting

 

 

CL Resin

 

 

Tieu W. et al. "Rapid and automated production of Ga-68 chloride and Ga-68-DOTA-TATE on a medical cyclotron". 

Nuclear Medicine and Biology,  online 12 July 2019, In Press, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2019.07.005

 

Abstract:

 

Introduction
The demand for Gallium-68 (68Ga) for labelling PET radiopharmaceuticals has increased over the past few years. 68Ga is obtained through the decayed parent radionuclide 68Ge using commercial 68Ge/68Ga generators. The principal limitation of commercial 68Ge/68Ga generators is that only a limited and finite quantity of 68Ga (

 

Methods
Enriched ZnCl2 was electrodeposited on a platinum backing using an NH4Cl (pH 2–4) buffer. The Zn target was irradiated with GE PETtrace 880 at 35 uA and 14.5 and 12.0 MeV beam energy. The irradiated Zn target was purified using octanol resin on an automated system.

 

Results
Following the described procedure, 68Ga was obtained in 6.30 ± 0.42 GBq after 8.5 min bombardment and with low radionuclidic impurities (66Ga (<0.005%) and 67Ga (<0.09%)). Purification on a single octanol resin gave 82% recovery with resulting [68Ga]GaCl3 obtained in 3.5 mL of 0.2 M HCl. [68Ga]GaCl3 production from irradiation to final product was 70%.

 

Conclusions
A straightforward procedure for producing 68Ga on a low energy medical cyclotron was described. Current efforts are focus on high activity production and radiolabelling using solid target produced 68Ga.

 

Keywords
Cyclotron, Ga-68, Solid targetry, PET, DOTA-TATE

 

TK400 Resin

 

 

Miller et al. "Antibiotic treatment affects the expression levels of copper transporters and the isotopic composition of copper in the colon of mice"

 

Abstract:

Copper is a critical enzyme cofactor in the body but also a potent cellular toxin when intracellularly unbound. Thus, there is a delicate balance of intracellular copper, maintained by a series of complex interactions between the metal and specific copper transport and binding proteins.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the primary site of copper entry into the body and there has been considerable progress in understanding the intricacies of copper metabolism in this region. The GI tract is also host to diverse bacterial populations, and their role in copper metabolism is not well understood.

In this study, we compared the isotopic fractionation of copper in the GI tract of mice with intestinal microbiota significantly depleted by antibiotic treatment to that in mice not receiving such treatment. We demonstrated variability in copper isotopic composition along the length of the gut. A significant difference, ∼1.0‰, in copper isotope abundances was measured in the proximal colon of antibiotic-treated mice. The changes in copper isotopic composition in the colon are accompanied by changes in copper transporters. Both CTR1, a copper importer, and ATP7A, a copper transporter across membranes, were significantly down-regulated in the colon of antibiotic-treated mice.

This study demonstrated that isotope abundance measurements of metals can be used as an indicator of changes in metabolic processes in vivo. These measurements revealed a host–microbial interaction in the GI tract involved in the regulation of copper transport.

 

CU Resin

 

 

Larenko et al. "Preparation of Zirconium-89 Solutions for Radiopharmaceutical Purposes: Interrelation Between Formulation, Radiochemical Purity, Stability and Biodistribution"

Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1534https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081534

 

Abstract:

Zirconium-89 is a promising radionuclide for nuclear medicine. The aim of the present work was to find a suitable method for obtaining zirconium-89 solutions for radiopharmaceutical purposes.
For this purpose, the ion exchange behavior of zirconium-89 solutions was studied. Radio-TLC (thin layer chromatography) and biodistribution studies were carried out to understand speciation of zirconium-89 complexes and their role in the development of new radiopharmaceuticals. Three methods of zirconium-89 isolation were studied using ZR (hydroxamate) and Chelex-100 resins. It was found that ZR-resin alone is not enough to obtain stable zirconium-89 formulations. An easy and effective method of reconstitution of [89Zr]Zr-oxalate to [89Zr]Zr-citrate using Chelex-100 resin was developed.

Developed procedures allow obtaining [89Zr]Zr-oxalate (in 0.1 M sodium oxalate solution) and [89Zr]Zr-citrate (in 0.1–1.0 M sodium citrate solution). These solutions are perfectly suitable and convenient for radiopharmaceutical purposes. Our results prove [89Zr]Zr-citrate to be advantageous over [89Zr]Zr-oxalate. During evaluation of speciation of zirconium-89 complexes, a new TLC method was developed, since it was proved that there is no comprehensive method
for analysis or zirconium-89 preparations. The new method provides valuable insights about the content of “active” ionic form of zirconium-89. The interrelation of the chromatographic behavior of zirconium-89 preparations and their biodistribution was studied.

 

ZR Resin

 

 

Riga et al. "Production of Ga-68 with a General Electric PETtrace cyclotron by liquid target"

Physica Medica Available online 25 October 2018 In Press, Corrected Proof

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2018.10.018

 

Abstract:

Purpose
In recent years the use of 68Ga (t1/2 = 67.84 min, β+: 88.88%) for the labelling of different PET radiopharmaceuticals has significantly increased. This work aims to evaluate the feasibility of the production of 68Ga via the 68Zn(p,n)68Ga reaction by proton irradiation of an enriched zinc solution, using a biomedical cyclotron, in order to satisfy its increasing demand.

Methods
Irradiations of 1.7 M solution of 68Zn(NO3)2 in 0.2 N HNO3 were conducted with a GE PETtrace cyclotron using a slightly modified version of the liquid target used for the production of fluorine-18. The proton beam energy was degraded to 12 MeV, in order to minimize the production of 67Ga through the 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga reaction. The product’s activity was measured using a calibrated activity meter and a High Purity Germanium gamma-ray detector.

Results
The saturation yield of 68Ga amounts to (330 ± 20) MBq/µA, corresponding to a produced activity of 68Ga at the EOB of (4.3 ± 0.3) GBq in a typical production run at 46 µA for 32 min. The radionuclidic purity of the 68Ga in the final product, after the separation, is within the limits of the European Pharmacopoeia (>99.9%) up to 3 h after the EOB. Radiochemical separation up to a yield not lower than 75% was obtained using an automated purification module. The enriched material recovery efficiency resulted higher than 80–90%.

Conclusions
In summary, this approach provides clinically relevant amounts of 68Ga by cyclotron irradiation of a liquid target, as a competitive alternative to the current production through the 68Ge/68Ga generators.

 

ZR Resin and TK200 Resin

 

 

Yu Tang et al.: "A Radiopharmaceutical [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab for ImmunoPET with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression In Vivo", Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Available online 8 February 2019, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2019.01.007 

 

Abstract:

Introduction: The potential of the positron-emitting zirconium-89 (89Zr) (t1/2=78.4 h) has been recently reported for immune positron emission tomography (immunoPET) radioimmunoconjugates design. In our work, we explored the optimized preparation of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab, and evaluated 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) construct for targeted imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in glioma. Methods: To optimize the radiolabeling efficiency of 89Zr with DFO-nimotuzumab, multiple immunoconjugates and radiolabeling were performed. Radiolabeling yield, radiochemical purity, stability, and activity assay were investigated to characterize [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab for chemical and biological integrity. The in vivo behavior of this tracer was studied in mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG (EGFR-positive) tumors received a 3.5±0.2 MBq/dose using PET/CT imaging. One group mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG (EGFR-positive) tumors received [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab (3.5±0.2 MBq, ~3 μg) (nonblocking) for immunoPET; the other group had 30 μg predose (blocking) of cold nimotuzumab 24 h prior to [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab. 
Results: [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab was prepared with high radiochemical yield (>90%), radiochemical purity (>99%), and specific activity (115±0.8 MBq/mg). In vitro validation showed that [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab had an initial immunoreactive fraction of 0.99±0.05 and remained active for up to 5 days. A biodistribution study revealed excellent stability of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab in vivo compared with 89Zr as a bone seeker. High uptake in the liver and heart and modest penetration in the brain were observed, with no significant accumulation of activity in other organs. ImmunoPET studies also indicated prominent image contrast that remarkably high uptake up to ~20 %ID/g for nonblocking and ~2 %ID/g for blocking in tumor between 12-120 h after administration.
Conclusion: These studies developed a radiopharmaceutical [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab with optimized synthesis. The potential utility of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab in assessing EGFR status in glioma was demonstrated in
this study.

 

ZR Resin

 

 

Pin, C. and Gannoun, A.: "A triple tandem columns extraction chromatography method for isolation of highly purified Neodymium prior to 143Nd/144Nd and 142Nd/144Nd isotope ratios determinations" J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2018, Accepted Manuscript, https://doi.org/10.1039/C8JA00360B  

 

Abstract: 

A new separation scheme is presented for the isolation of Nd fractions highly purified from adjacent lanthanides, especially Ce and Pr, in preparation to demanding isotope ratios applications, e.g. determination of 142Nd/144Nd, or measurement of 143Nd/144Nd on very small samples by using NdO+ ion beams. Following sample dissolution with hydrofluoric and nitric acids, the method avoids lengthy evaporations, and does not require an oxidation stage to get rid of most of Ce as Ce(IV). The scheme is based on the concatenation of several small extraction chromatographic (EXC) columns filled with three different, commercially available resins, and used in successive tandem configurations, without intervening evaporation step. In the first column, filled with 0.25 ml of the well established TRU-resin, the LREE are separated from matrix elements, and directly stripped onto a second 1 ml column filled with an HEH[HEP]-based EXC material (LN2-resin), which performs an early separation of Nd from most of Ce and Pr, and from all Sm and heavier lanthanides. The Nd fraction separated in this way is eluted on-line onto a third column filled with 1 ml of resin based on a diglycolamide extracting agent (DGA-resin), for further removal of Ce and Pr impurities. Finally, the Nd fraction is stripped from the DGA column onto the previously used LN2 column for a second pass achieving an additional “skimming” of residual Ce and Pr. The LN2-DGA tandem column cycle can be repeated as many times as desired, thereby providing Nd in an extremely pure form.

 

TRU Resin, LN2 Resin and DGA Resin

 

 

Malinconico, M., Asp, J., Lang, C., Boschi, F., Tieu, W., Kuan, K., Guidi, G., Takhar, P.:"68Ga and 45Ti production on a GE PETtrace cyclotron using the ALCEO solid target" 

J Nucl Med May 1, 2018 vol. 59 no. supplement 1 664 , presentation available online.

 

Abstract:

Objectives: The ALCEO solid target system has been developed by Comecer for cyclotron production of 64Cu 89Zr, 123I and 124I. ALCEO Solid Target is composed by one irradiation unit (PTS), one dissolution/transfer unit (EDS/FDS) and one purification module (TADDEO PRF); all the units work automatically, avoiding any radiation exposures to operators. Many sites are already producing these radioisotopes with yields respectively of >2mCi/µAh (64Cu), >0.4mCi/µAh (89Zr and 123I), >0.1mCi/µAh (124I). The aim of this work was to expand the use of the ALCEO system to also produce 68Ga and 45Ti. Production and labelling results will be presented as well. Methods 68Zn was electroplated onto a target shuttle and irradiated (with a typical current from 10µA to 30µA) with 12.1 MeV protons to produce 68Ga. Irradiated target was dissolved in 10M HCl. The 68Ga was separated from the irradiated 68Zn using LN resin (TRISKEM), then labelled to PSMA and DOTATATE using an Eckert and Ziegler Modular-Lab eazy synthesis module. Natural scandium was irradiated with 12.1 MeV protons, with a typical current of 10µA to produce 45Ti. Irradiated target was dissolved by drop-by-drop 6M HCl. The 45Ti was separated from the irradiated scandium using ZR resin (TRISKEM), then labelled manually to DFO mesylate salt . Results 68Ga is produced with a saturation yield of 1330±590 MBq/µA (N=2), and was successfully labelled to PSMA and DOTATATE with 79.2% and 76.0% synthesis yields and 99.0% and 91.3% radiochemical purity respectively. 45Ti is produced with a saturation yield of 312 MBq/µA (N=1). It was not successfully labelled to PSMA and DOTATATE, however the labelling efficiency for DFO mesylate salt was 41%. Conclusions The Comecer ALCEO solid target system has been used successfully to produce 64Cu, 89Zr, 68Ga and 45Ti. The produced PET-isotopes have a very high radio-purity and chemical-purity and they can be used for radio-labeling processes. Future work includes optimisation of separation processes, and production of 203Pb and 44Sc.

 

ZR Resin and LN Resin

 

 

Pupillo G. et al. :"New production cross sections for the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu" 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 415, 2018, 41-47https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2017.10.022

 

Abstract:

The cross sections of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were measured at the ARRONAX facility by using the 70 MeV cyclotron, with particular attention to the production of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu. Enriched 68Zn material was electroplated on silver backing and exposed to a low-intensity proton beam by using the stacked-foils target method. Since 67Cu and 67Ga radionuclides have similar half-lives and same γ-lines (they both decay to 67Zn), a radiochemical process aimed at Cu/Ga separation was mandatory to avoid interferences in γ-spectrometry measurements. A simple chemical procedure having a high separation efficiency (>99%) was developed and monitored during each foil processing, thanks to the tracer isotopes 61Cu and 66Ga. Nuclear cross sections were measured in the energy range 35–70 MeV by using reference reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to monitor beam flux. In comparison with literature data a general good agreement on the trend of the nuclear reactions was noted, especially with latest measurements, but slightly lower values were obtained in case of 67Cu. Experimental results of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were also compared with the theoretical values estimated by using the software TALYS. The production yield of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu was estimated considering the results obtained in this work.

 

CU Resin

 

 

van Es, E.M., Russell, B.C., Ivanov, P. et al. :"The behaviour of 226Ra in high-volume environmental water samples on TK100 resin" 

J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2017) 312: 105, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-017-5203-4

 

Abstract:

Accurate, low-level measurement of 226Ra in high volume water samples requires rapid pre-concentration and robust separation techniques prior to measurement in order to comply with discharge limits and drinking water regulations. This study characterises the behaviour of 226Ra and interfering elements on recently developed TK100 (Triskem International) extraction chromatography resin. Distribution coefficients over a range of acid concentrations are given, along with an optimised procedure that shows rapid pre-concentration and separation of 226Ra on TK100 resin is achievable for high volume (1 L) water samples without the need for sample pre-treatment.

 

TK100 Resin

 

 

Graves, S.A.: "Evaluation of a chloride-based 89Zr isolation strategy using a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-functionalized extraction resin" 

Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volumes 64–65, September–October 2018, Pages 1-7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2018.06.003

 

Abstract:

Introduction
The remarkable stability of the 89Zr-DOTA complex has been shown in recent literature. The formation of this complex appears to require 89Zr-chloride as the complexation precursor rather than the more conventional 89Zr-oxalate. In this work we present a method for the direct isolation of 89Zr-chloride from irradiated natY foils.

Methods
89Zr, 88Zr, and 88Y were prepared by 16 MeV proton irradiation of natY foils and used for batch-extraction based equilibrium coefficient measurements for TBP and UTEVA resin. Radionuclidically pure 89Zr was prepared by 14 MeV proton-irradiation of natY foils. These foils were dissolved in concentrated HCl, trapped on columns of TBP or UTEVA resin, and 89Zr-chloride was eluted in

Results
Equilibrium coefficients for Y and Zr were similar between UTEVA and TBP resins across all HCl concentrations. Kd values of <10−1 mL/g were observed for Y across all HCl concentrations. Kd values of >103 mL/g were observed at HCl concentrations >9 M for Zr, falling to Kd values of

Conclusion
TBP-functionalized resin appears promising for the direct isolation of 89Zr-chloride from irradiated natY targets. Excellent 89Zr recovery efficiencies were obtained, and chemical purity was sufficient for proof-of-concept chelation studies.

 

TBP Resin

 

 

Brügmann et al. "Silver isotope analysis of gold nuggets: An appraisal of instrumental isotope fractionation effects and potential for high-resolution tracing of placer gold"

 

Chemical Geology, Volume 516, 30 June 2019, Pages 59-67https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2019.03.015

 

Abstract: 

We describe a technique for high-precision analysis of 109Ag/107Ag ratios in natural and archaeological gold (1.0–120 mg/g Ag) with particular emphasis on the control of Ag yield and effects of instrumental mass bias. After dissolution of mg-sized gold samples in aqua regia and conversion to chlorides, a miniature column filled with the anion exchange resin AG@1-X8 was used for removal of Au from the sample solutions. In a second miniature column made of the Triskem TBP resin Ag was converted from the chloride to the nitrate form. Isotopic analyses on the MC-ICP-MS employed the combination of Pd-doping and standard bracketing and considering the measurements of replicate dissolutions and chromatographic separations for SRM978a and CEZAg reference solutions, the combined analytical uncertainty (2 s) of the analytical method is better than 0.016‰. A solution prepared from several gold nuggets was characterised isotopically (CEZAg with δ109Ag = 0.043 ± 0.015‰) for use as a silver-in‑gold reference material in Ag isotope studies of natural and processed gold.

Results for gold nuggets from three continents indicate a wide variation in Ag concentrations (5 to 123 mg/g) and this is matched by an equally wide range in isotopic compositions (δ109Ag −0.58 to +0.83‰). This is larger than the variation found so far in in native gold from primary deposits (−0.42 to +0.5‰). Although small isotopic effects to lower δ109Ag during strong Ag loss are possible within a single grain, most analysed nuggets are internally isotopically homogeneous. This suggests preservation of the primary δ109Ag in the supergene environment and that gold was sourced from several distinct gold deposits in the catchment. Recent studies, however, indicate that even single primary deposits may be isotopically heterogeneous implying that Ag isotope fractionation is caused by numerous deposition-dissolution cycles in hydrothermal systems. Fine-grained detrital gold from three placers along the Rhine river in Germany show only small differences in δ109Ag (−0.005 ± 0.047 to +0.124 ± 0.007‰, despite being distributed along 480 km of river length. This may indicate thorough mixing of gold grain populations during transport.

The small sample size required for Ag isotope work on gold opens the way for detailed micro-sampling approaches. These may be used to further examine the potential for within-grain isotopic variability related to fluviatile processing and can be used to correlate the composition of the placers with that of grains from primary sources.

 

TBP Resin

 

 

Süfke, F., Lippold, J., Happel, S.: "Improved Separation of Pa from Th and U in Marine Sediments with TK400 Resin" 

Anal. Chem., 2018, 90 (2), pp 1395–1401; DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04723

 

Abstract:

Protactinium-231 is a radionuclide of broad interest in paleoceanography and paleoclimatology. This study describes an improved method for the purification and separation of Pa from marine sediment samples using the new TK400 resin by TrisKem International. The focus lies on the improvement of the separation of the abundant 232Th from the Pa fraction of the sample, which would reduce the peak tailing from 232Th on masses 231 and 233 during ICP-MS measurement. Furthermore, the reusability of TK400 has been tested. For this purpose, the conventional method using Dowex AG1X8 for the separation and purification of Pa has been compared to methods using the TK400 resin. A combination of a Dowex AG1X8 prior to a TK400 column has shown most convincing results. Based on our results we suggest a new efficient procedural method of analyzing 231Pa from marine sediment samples using TK400. Chemical Pa yields for a Dowex-TK400 combination are highest compared to the Dowex only method. Furthermore, the 232Th/231Pa ratio of the Pa-fractions has been reduced by 1 order of magnitude compared to conventional methods with Dowex AG1X8. Additionally, the reusability of TK400 resin up to nine times has been proven. The usage of TK400 is only limited in the presence of samples with a high matrix load (e.g., Fe). Therefore, matrix from sediment samples needs to be removed (here using Dowex resin) before samples are loaded onto TK400. We also report a series of concentration measurements from standard reference materials (UREM-11, NIST 2702), which have been used for 233Pa calibration.

 

TK400 Resin

 

 

Carolina Hernández González, Inmaculada Sierra Bercedo:"Rapid procedure for actinides and 90Sr analysis in emergency urine spot samples applied in the GHSI-RNWG emergency intercomparison exercise"

Appl. Radiat. Isot., in press, available online 17.11.18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.11.007 

 

Abstract:

A rapid radiochemical separation method for quantification of 90Sr, plutonium, americium, curium, uranium and thorium isotopes in urine spot samples has been developed. The validation and suitability of the method has been tested in the emergency intercomparison exercise organised by the Global Health Security Initiative / Radio-Nuclear Threats Working Group. Excellent results were obtained with bias of -0.07 (239Pu) and -0.11 (90Sr). CIEMAT Laboratory also fulfilled the established reporting schedule and submitted the results within 72 hours, as required.

 

 TEVA, TRU and Sr-Resin

 

Maoyi Luo et al.: "Sequential analyses of actinides in large-size soil and sediment samples with total sample dissolution" 

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 187, July 2018, Pages 73-80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.01.028

 

Abstract:

There is a growing demand for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples for environmental monitoring and tracing, radiological protection, and nuclear forensic reasons. A total sample dissolution method based on lithium metaborate fusion, followed by sequential column chromatography separation, was developed for simultaneous determination of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in large-size environmental samples by alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometric techniques. The overall recoveries of both Pu and Am for the entire procedure were higher than 70% for large-size soil samples. The method was validated using 20 g of soil samples spiked with known amounts of 239Pu and 241Am as well as the certified reference materials IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment) and IAEA-385 (Irish Sea sediment). All the measured results agreed very well with the expected values.

 

TEVA Resin and DGA, N Resin

 

 

Wang, Z., Lin, J., Li, S. et al. "Rapid method for accurate determination of actinides (U, Th, Pu and Am) in water samples for emergency response" 

J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2018) 315: 103, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-017-5640-0

 

Abstract:

To rapidly assess the contamination of actinides in emergency water, a method was developed to simultaneously analyze U, Th, Pu and Am. The method consists of two steps: extraction chromatographic separation using UTEVA and DGA resins and isotopic determination of actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The whole analytical procedure takes only 8 h and high chemical recoveries of actinides were obtained. The cross spectral interferences between actinides in ICPMS measurement were sufficiently removed. The accuracy was validated by analyzing IAEA-443 seawater sample. The low limits of detection of actinides allow this method to distinguish low level contamination.

 

UTEVA Resin and DGA resin

 

 

Marstren, T. et al. "Chromatographic separation of the theranostic radionuclide 111Ag from a proton irradiated thorium matrix"

Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 998, 15 January 2018, Pages 75-82, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.10.020

 

Abstract:

Column chromatographic methods have been developed to separate no-carrier-added 111Ag from proton irradiated thorium targets and associated fission products as an ancillary process to an existing 225Ac separation design. Herein we report the separation of 111Ag both prior and subsequent to 225Ac recovery using CL resin, a solvent impregnated resin (SIR) that carries an organic solution of alkyl phosphine sulfides (R3P = S) and alkyl phosphine oxides (R3P = O). The recovery yield of 111Ag was 93 ± 9% with a radiochemical purity of 99.9% (prior) and 87 ± 9% with a radiochemical purity of 99.9% (subsequent to) 225Ac recovery. Both processes were successfully performed with insignificant impacts on 225Ac yields or quality. Measured equilibrium distribution coefficients for silver and ruthenium (a residual contaminant) on CL resin in hydrochloric and nitric acid media are reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Additionally, measured cross sections for the production of 111Ag and 110mAg for the 232Th(p,f)110m,111Ag reactions are reported within.

 

CL Resin

 

 

Alves, V.H. et al.: "Automated Purification of Radiometals Produced by Liquid Targets" 

Instruments 2018, 2(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2030017

 

Abstract: 

An automated process for the production and purification of radiometals produced by irradiating liquid targets in a medical cyclotron, using a commercially available module, has been developed. The method is suitable for the production and purification of radiometals such as 68Ga, 64Cu and 61Cu through irradiation of liquid targets and is important for producing high specific activity radioisotopes with a substantial reduction in processing time and cost when compared with the solid target approach. The “liquid target” process also eliminates the need for pre- and post-irradiation target preparation and simplifies the transfer of irradiated material from target to hotcell. A 68GaCl3 solution can be obtained in about 35 min with an average yield of 73.9 ± 6.7% in less than 10 mL of volume. 64CuCl2 solutions can be obtained with an average yield of 81.2 ± 7.8% in about 1 h of processing time. A dedicated single-use disposable kit is used on a commercial IBA Synthera® extension module.

 

CU Resin

 

 

Morrison, S.S., Morrison, E.C., Uhnak, N.E. et al.: "Isolation of Au and Pt radionuclides from deuteron-irradiated platinum using TBP resin" 

J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6382-3

 

Abstract:

A separation procedure was developed and implemented for the isolation of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) radionuclides from deuteron irradiated Pt using tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) resin. Computational modeling and experimental results of the Au and Pt radionuclide production were reported and compared to literature values. Results of the separation procedure demonstrated a Pt recovery of 98 ± 2% and a Au recovery of 92 ± 7%, in their respective fractions (n = 4 ± 1σ) The decontamination factors were 2900 ± 500 for Au removal from the Pt fraction and 830 ± 30 for Pt removal from the Au fraction (n = 4 ± 1σ).

 

TBP Resin

 

 

Naperstkow, Z., Moore, K., Szames, D. et al.: "Production and standardization of an on-demand protactinium-233 tracer"

J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2018) 318: 703, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6068-x

 

Abstract:

Protactinium-233 (233Pa) was generated by neutron activation of thorium and isolated by column chromatography using an octanol-impregnated resin. Absolute activity standardization was performed on 233Pa using three independent methods, the results of which agreed within their associated uncertainties. The standardized 233Pa was used to calibrate a secondary standard ionization chamber and high purity germanium detectors to enable a rapid and traceable method for the production and quantification of this radiotracer.

 

TK400

 

 

Jerome, S.M. et al. "Isolation and purification of protactinium-231" 

Appl Radiat Isot. 20:18 Apr;134:18-22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.07.051

 

Abstract:

Protactinium-231 is one of the lesser known actinides, yet the measurement of this radionuclide is central to dating studies in both paleoclimate and nuclear forensics measurements; furthermore, it is important as the immediate parent nuclide of the 227Ac decay chain. In this paper, we present the preparatory work for an upcoming CCRI(II) supplementary comparison of this radionuclide. The material used in this work was of poorly known provenance, and it was necessary to carry out a chemical purification of this material prior to use. A new extraction chromatography resin, TK 400, which has been developed for the separation of 231Pa, was tested at NPL. The aims of the work were achieved; the recovery of 231Pa was ~85%, the decay products were recovered in good yield (~95%) and stable element impurities were removed.

 

TK400

 

 

Pupillo, G. et al. "New production cross sections for the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu" 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 15, 2018, 41-47https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2017.10.022

 

Abstract:

The cross sections of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were measured at the ARRONAX facility by using the 70 MeV cyclotron, with particular attention to the production of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu. Enriched 68Zn material was electroplated on silver backing and exposed to a low-intensity proton beam by using the stacked-foils target method. Since 67Cu and 67Ga radionuclides have similar half-lives and same γ-lines (they both decay to 67Zn), a radiochemical process aimed at Cu/Ga separation was mandatory to avoid interferences in γ-spectrometry measurements. A simple chemical procedure having a high separation efficiency (>99%) was developed and monitored during each foil processing, thanks to the tracer isotopes 61Cu and 66Ga. Nuclear cross sections were measured in the energy range 35–70 MeV by using reference reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to monitor beam flux. In comparison with literature data a general good agreement on the trend of the nuclear reactions was noted, especially with latest measurements, but slightly lower values were obtained in case of 67Cu. Experimental results of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were also compared with the theoretical values estimated by using the software TALYS. The production yield of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu was estimated considering the results obtained in this work.

 

CU Resin

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